Stem cells have been used in veterinary medicine for a significant period of time. There are a number of methods for acquiring stem cells. The two most common methods are 1) body fat derived or 2) bone marrow derived. Stem cells are used to treat many different conditions. In terms of lameness uses, stem cells are used to treat soft tissue lesions, bony lesions, cartilage defects, laminitis, and a variety of other conditions. Body fat derived stem cells are most commonly found and harvested from the area surrounding the tail head. An incision is made, the fat is harvested, and then it is sent to a specialized lab to separate out the stems cells. Once separated, they are returned to your veterinarian in a sterile injection kit. The bone marrow derived stem cells are most commonly acquired by placing a trocar into the sternum or wing of the ilium (pelvis). The stem cells are then injected by a variety of techniques, including ultrasound-guided, intravenously, and during surgery.